Gregory XVI (1831-1846)
Mauro Cappellari (1765-1846)

Gregory XVI's pontificate saw the reorganization of the hierarchy, the reform of existing orders, and the founding of new orders. Doctrinally, he promoted the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary without, however, defining it as a dogma of faith.

Most noteworthy were the efforts which he devoted to the Church outside Europe. The 19th-century revival of the missions dates from his reign, and in reorganizing them, he brought them firmly under papal control. Through him some seventy dioceses and vicariates apostolic were established, and almost 200 missionary bishops were appointed.

In the brief In supremo he denounced slavery and the slave-trade as unworthy of Christians. He encourage a native clergy and hierarchy in missionary countries. In matters of doctrine, he condemned the entire spectrum of all that the liberal Catholics stood for in the most explicit terms in his encyclical Mirari vos (1832).

Gregory had a real interest in art and scholarship and not only encouraged research in the Roman Forum and the Catacombs but also founded the Etruscan and Egyptian museums in the Vatican, and the Christian museum in the Lateran.

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